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Active Expert: Gale Bernhardt

4 Posts tagged with the race tag


Hi Gale,

I've read a few articles by both you, Joel Friel and a few others about training and racing at altitude.  This year I'm racing Leadville and have access to a place in Frisco for training.  My plan is to do all of my higher intensity workouts here in Fort Collins and do longer, steady training rides on the weekends in Breckenridge and up around Leadville.  I've found discussions of benefits for >4 weeks and your suggestions for racing at >8500 ft:

Utilizing Altitude Training for Racing at Altitudes Above 8,500 Feet

  • Live at an     altitude between 5,000 and 8,500 feet for three to four weeks.
  • Drive to higher     altitudes for some training days and consider occasional overnight stays     prior to training days. Keep recovery periods at lower altitudes.
  • Keep power     output high by doing high-intensity work intervals at 5,000 to 8,500 feet     or lower. Or, consider using supplemental oxygen during workouts.


But do you get the benefits of living at high altitude by spending weekends at ~9000 ft or is it just not a large enough percentage of time to matter?  I've even dug around on a few Everest web sites that seem to indicate that a couple of extra days at higher camps is enough to help while spending the majority of time at base camp (although that might be too extreme of an example to make sense).


Anyway - thanks and I hope to see you at somerides/races this summer,




Hi A.J. ~

First, congrats on your Leadville entry. I am entered in Leadville this year as well, so maybe I’ll see you there – or training on the great trails in Northern Colorado.

For your question, “But do you get the benefits of living at high altitude by spending weekends at ~9000 ft or is it just not a large enough percentage of time to matter? “

In my opinion, yes, you do get benefits from spending weekends or perhaps every three weekends at altitude. I live on the Front Range close to you, as you know from the group ride listing. Here is a blog that I wrote about intermittent altitude exposure. 

I too have access to training around Frisco and I continue to collect one-person data on oxygen saturation. I do a mix of alpine and Nordic skiing through the winter and I’ve found the oxygen saturation data stays consistent. If I can get to Summit County roughly every three weeks, I can maintain higher oxygen saturation levels. Like you, I do most of my training at ~5,000 feet which I believe keeps power output high. I may know more about that (real data) this season.

Hope this helps. See you on the trails (or the road) ~



Detailed off-season plans for triathlon and cycling, along with event-specific running, cycling and triathlon plans are found here.

Comments and questions can be added on Facebook or Gale’s website.

Ironman and half-Ironman plans available on ActiveTrainer.

1,212 Views 0 Comments Permalink Tags: training, race, leadville, colorado, mountain_bike, lt100, frisco, 100_miles

Recently I wrote a column on how to prevent thigh muscle cramping. After doing a good amount of research – on the research – on muscle cramping, I experienced muscle cramping myself. It isn’t the first time I’ve experienced muscle cramps, but I will say that I don’t have a family history of muscle cramps nor do I have a history of tendon or ligament injuries. All three of these items were found to be associated with cramping in one research paper.


In my opinion, based only on my personal race experience, cramps are related to intensity. That is intensity and volume of intensity in a race situation, compared to training.


In short, the mainstay of my training over the summer was directed at doing mountain bike races between 8 and 11 hours long and at altitudes between 9,000 and 12,600 feet. I live at roughly 5000 feet.


In September I had an unexpected opportunity to do a race that I thought might take me between 5.5 and 6 hours. This particular race was at altitudes between 3,000 and 6,000 feet. Unlike my longer races in the season, this race had short, poppy climbs inserted in within an event where most of the altitude gains were in the first half of the race. My longer races had long, sustained climbs for the majority of elevation gains.


Before the September race I decided I was going to ride as many of the short, steep hills as possible and I was going to press the intensity.


Below you can see a chart that displays the heart rate time spent in various zones (using the same heart rate zones for all races) for three of my races. For those of you familiar with the training zones I use, you’ll notice that in the September race I spent two hours and forty-six minutes (2:46) in a zone considered lactate threshold. This was 50-percent of the race time.


Heart rate comparison 3 races_edited.jpg

(Click on the chart to see a larger image.)


What? How is that possible?


I’ll tell you how that is possible in the next post.


For this post, know that my aggressive approach to the race came with a price. The first charge was a hamstring cramp when I was in the process of quickly dismounting the bike on a steep climb. The second charge was an inner thigh (adductor) cramp on a steep hill that was around two minutes long.


How did I get rid of the cramps?


For the hamstring, I stopped and stretched the hamstring while pressing my fingers into the belly of the muscle right where it hurt the most. Once the cramp was gone, I got back on the bike and started pedaling again at an easy pace. If the hamstring felt like it might cramp again, I changed my position on the bike until I could pedal without threat of cramping. Once the easy pace was doable without cramping, I ramped the speed back up.


No drinking lots of water. No popping electrolyte tablets. (Which I wasn’t carrying.)


Some 30 to 45 minutes later in the race when my adductor on the other leg cramped, I kept pedaling but slowed down. I massaged the muscle that was cramping. I changed positions on the bike so the cramp wasn’t aggravated. Once the easy pace was doable without cramping, I ramped the speed back up.


No drinking lots of water. No popping electrolyte tablets. I continued consuming my electrolyte drink and eating normally, as I had done in other races this season and within the race previous to the cramps.


So why did I cramp?


Intensity. In my opinion, the cause of my cramps - and I suspect many other athletes as well - is high intensity and high volume of intensity. This is intensity that was not adequately trained.


I pushed the intensity at this event much more than in the longer races. As you can see on the chart, I had a 100+ mile race in August, roughly three weeks prior to the September event. I had plenty of endurance.


Though my muscular endurance was well trained, my anaerobic endurance was not well trained. Ouch.


I was able to work my way through the cramps knowing that:


  • it is possible for me to make them go away, I’ve done it before.
  • my overall fitness was solid.
  • hydration and fueling was dialed in.
  • I used self-talk to say, “no cramping, legs, pedal now”, “shut up legs” (stolen from Jens Voigt), “cramps are temporary, speed will return.”
  • I knew I hadn’t pushed this hard, for this long in any training or racing sessions – and that’s okay.


Next post…how the heck can anyone spend near three hours at lactate threshold?


Questions and discussion can be found on my Facebook page.


Cycling and mountain bike training plans can be found here.

1,060 Views 0 Comments Permalink Tags: race, hamstring, intensity, lactate_threshold, mountain_bike, muscle_cramps, inner_thigh, electrolyte, cause, anaerobic_threshold

For all those that want a glimpse into the future…


Click on the images to make them bigger.



Leadville weather_Page_1_edited-1.jpg


Leadville weather_Page_2_edited-1.jpg

994 Views 0 Comments Permalink Tags: bike, mountain, race, leadville, 100

Bike Tours

Posted by Gale Bernhardt Jul 6, 2007


I've been spending this week recovering from riding a bike tour around the northern mountains of Colorado. I have to say I love doing bike tours for the sheer pleasure of focusing on riding from point A to point B, deciding what to eat, deciding the length of my afternoon nap, deciding what to eat, enjoying the great Colorado scenery, deciding what to eat and looking forward to the next day.


For a few years now - seven? I've used week-long bike tours as a crash training week to prepare for long events such as Ironman races or ultra-distance mountain bike races. The mountain bike race is this year's goal. More on that later.


My favorite part of this year's ride was cruising in the center of my very own lane, not obstructing traffic, descending the east side of Trail Ridge Road. New pavement too! It doesn't get much better than that...


A photo of the elevation sign at Rock Cut and my snoozing friend Todd below.








1,245 Views 0 Comments Permalink Tags: tour, trail, ridge, road, mountain, race