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Sports Are 80 Percent Mental

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After an hour of sweating on the treadmill or pumping iron, most of us look forward to the extra post-exercise "afterburn" of fat cells that has been promised to us by fitness pundits. This 24-hour period of altered metabolism is supposed to help with our overall weight loss. 

Unfortunately, a recent study found this to be a myth for moderate exercisers.

 

The new research clarifies a misunderstanding that exercisers can ignore their diet after a workout because their metabolism is in this super active state.

 

"It's not that exercise doesn't burn fat," said Edward Melanson, associate professor of medicine at the University of Colorado, "It's just that we replace the calories. People think they have a license to eat whatever they want, and our research shows that is definitely not the case. You can easily undo what you set out to do.”

 

The findings were detailed in the April edition of Exercise and Sport Sciences Review.

 

What does happen


Melanson and his team set out to measure whether people were able to burn more calories for the 24 hours after a workout compared to a day with no exercise. Their test groups, totaling 65 volunteers, included a mix of lean vs. obese and active vs. sedentary people.

On exercise days, they rode stationary bikes until they had burned 400 calories. Their pre and post exercise diet was controlled.

Throughout the groups, there was no difference in the amount of fat burned in the 24-hour period either with or without exercise.  Of course, during the exercise plenty of calories were being burned and that's the formula that Melanson would like us to remember.  "If you are using exercise to lose body weight or body fat, you have to consider how many calories you are expending and how many you are taking in," Melanson recently told WebMd. The daily energy balance or "calories in vs. calories out" is the most reliable equation for long-term weight loss.

While the current research focused on the moderate activity levels of most people, the researchers admitted they still need to examine the effect of higher intensity workouts and multiple consecutive days of exercise.

They are clear on their current message. "We suggest that it is time to put the myth that low intensity exercise promotes a greater fat burn to rest," Melanson writes. "Clearly, exercise intensity does not have an effect on daily fat balance, if intake is unchanged."

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Type of workout

So, how about a weight resistance training program mixed in with cardio work?  Another fitness industry claim is that more muscle mass on your frame will raise your metabolism rate, even while sitting on the couch.

 

The same study, using the same test groups, found the post-exercise rate of calorie burn did not change on days of lifting versus no lifting. It is true that a pound of muscle burns seven to ten calories per day versus only two calories per day for a pound of fat. However, the average adult just doesn't put on enough lean muscle mass to make this difference significant.

 

While this research dispels one myth about exercise, there is still overwhelming evidence of the benefits of movement when combined with your eating habits. So, before eating that double cheeseburger and fries, you might want to do some math to figure out how many stairs you'll have to climb to break even.

 

 

Please visit my other sports science articles at Sports Are 80 Percent Mental </b>

388 Views 0 Comments Permalink Tags: training, running, fitness, evidence_based_coaching, sports_science

 

!http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_3b3RMRFwqU0/SJ39bdJ06LI/AAAAAAAAAZU/4DN1--2fQ-4/s200-R/GoldMedal.jpg|style=border: 0pt none ;|src=http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_3b3RMRFwqU0/SJ39bdJ06LI/AAAAAAAAAZU/4DN1--2fQ-4/s200-R/GoldMedal.jpg!Imagine winning a gold medal at the Beijing Olympics .  No really, go ahead, close your eyes and visualize it.  What did you see?  Were you standing on the medal platform looking out at the crowd, waving and taking in the scene through your own eyes, or were you a spectator in the crowd watching yourself getting the medal put around your neck?  This choice between "first-person" or "third-person" visualization actually makes a difference on our motivation to achieve a future goal.


Noelia A. Vasquez, at York University and Roger Buehler, at Wilfrid Laurier University wanted to see if there was a link between our visualization perspective and our motivation level to achieve the imagined goal.  They asked 47 university students to imagine the successful completion of a performance task that was in their near future, whether it be a speech in a class or an upcoming athletic competition.  They were also asked to assume that the task went extremely well.  One group of students were asked to imagine this scene "through their own eyes" seeing the environment as they would actually experience it.  The second group was told to use the third-person perspective, pretending they were "in the crowd" watching themselves as others would see them achieving this goal.  Next, they were given a survey that asked each group how motivated they were to now go make this successful scene a reality. 




As hypothesized, the group that saw the scene through their audience's eyes (third-person) ranked their motivation to now succeed significantly higher than those that imagined it through their own eye (first-person).  The authors' explanation for this is the perceived additional importance attached to the task when we consider other peoples' opinion of us and our natural desire to increase our status in our peer group.  Seeing this newly elevated social acceptance and approval of ourselves from the eyes of our peers motivates us even more to reach for our goals.




The road to achievements like an Olympic gold medal is a long one with many steps along the way.  Over the years, as athletes maintain their training regimen, they can keep imagining the future goal, but they may need to also look back and recognize the improvements they have made over time.  This "progress to date" assessment will also provide motivation to keep going once they realize the hard work is actually having the desired effect and moving them along the desired path.  So, as they review their past to present progress, does the first or third person perspective make a difference there as well?




Researchers from Cornell, Yale and Ohio State, led by Thomas Gilovich , professor of psychology at Cornell, designed an experiment to find out.  They recruited a group of university students who had described their high-school years as "socially awkward" to now recall those years and compare them with their social skill in college.  The first group was asked to recall the past from a first-person perspective, just as their memories would provide them.  The second group was asked to remember themselves through the perspective of their classmates (third-person).  Next, each group was asked to assess the personal change they had accomplished since then.




As predicted, the group that had recalled their former selves in the third person reported greater progress and change towards a more social and accepted person in college than the group that remembered in the first-person.  "We have found that perspective can influence your interpretation of past events. In a situation in which change is likely, we find that observing yourself as a third person -- looking at yourself from an outside observer's perspective -- can help accentuate the changes you've made more than using a first-person perspective," says Gilovich.  "When participants recalled past awkwardness from a third-person perspective, they felt they had changed and were now more socially skilled," said Lisa K. Libby, an assistant professor of psychology at Ohio State University. "That led them to behave more sociably and appear more socially skilled to the research assistant."




So, whether looking forward or backward, seeing yourself through other's eyes seems to provide more motivation to not only continue the road to success, but to appreciate the progress you have made. 




Then the actual day of competition arrives.  It is one hour before you take your position on the starting blocks at the "Bird's Nest" stadium in Beijing or on the mat at the National Indoor Stadium for the gymnastics final.  Should you be imagining the medal ceremony and listening to your country's national anthem at that point?  In a recent Denver Post article , Peter Haberl, senior sports psychologist for the U.S. Olympic Committee says, "It takes a great deal of ability and skill to stay focused on the task at hand."  He distinguishes between an "outcome" goal, (receiving the medal) and "performance" (improving scores/times) and "process" (improving technique) goals.  "The difference is that these types of goals are much more under the control of the athlete," explains Haberl. "The process goal, in particular, directs attention to the here and now, which allows the athlete to totally focus on the doing of the activity; this is key to performing well.  This sounds simple but it really is quite difficult because the mind takes you to the past and the future all the time, particularly in the Olympic environment with its plethora of distractions and enticing rewards." 




Mental imagery is a well-known tool for every athlete to make distant and difficult goals seem attainable.  By seeing your future accomplishments through the eyes of others, you can attach more importance and reward to achieving them.  Just imagine yourself in London in 2012 !



<span 5px;
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<span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.aulast=Vasquez&amp;rft.aufirst=Noelia&amp;rft.aumiddle=A&amp;rft.au=Noelia+ Vasquez&amp;rft.title=PersonalityandSocialPsychologyBulletin&amp;rft.atitle=SeeingFutureSuccess%3ADoesImageryPerspectiveInfluenceAchievementMotivation%3F&amp;rft.date=2007&amp;rft.volume=33&amp;rft.issue=10&amp;rft.spage=1392&amp;rft.epage=1405&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.id=http%3A%2F%2Fpsp.sagepub.com%2Fcgi%2Fcontent%2Fabstract%2F33%2F10%2F1392&amp;rft.id=info:PMID/17933735">Vasquez, N.A. (2007). Seeing Future Success: Does Imagery Perspective Influence Achievement Motivation?. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(10), 1392-1405.




<span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.aulast=Libby&amp;rft.aufirst=Lisa&amp;rft.aumiddle=K&amp;rft.au=Lisa+ Libby&amp;rft.au=RichardPEibach&amp;rft.au=Thomas+Gilovich&amp;rft.title=JournalofPersonalityandSocialPsychology&amp;rft.atitle=Here%27sLookingatMe%3ATheEffectofMemoryPerspectiveonAssessmentsofPersonal+Change.&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft.volume=88&amp;rft.issue=1&amp;rft.spage=50&amp;rft.epage=62&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.id=info:DOI/10.1037%2F0022-3514.88.1.50">Libby, L.K., Eibach, R.P., Gilovich, T. (2005). Here's Looking at Me: The Effect of Memory Perspective on Assessments of Personal Change.. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(1), 50-62. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.88.1.50</font>

598 Views 0 Comments Permalink Tags: training, olympics, coaching, evidence_based_coaching, sports_cognition, sports_science, sport_skills, mental_imagery


Dan Peterson

Dan Peterson

Member since: Oct 1, 2007

A Look Inside the Mind of the Athlete - You can find a mix of sport science, cognitive science, coaching and performance stories here as I focus on the "thinking" side of sports. My "home" is at http://blog.80percentmental.com. Thanks for stopping by!

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