I am going to take you through a guide of what I think makes the most amount of sense to eat before, during, and after a run. You will have to tweak and decide what makes the most amount of sense for you.
Try to eat good slow burning carbohydrates prior to a workout. More importantly, make sure you give your body enough time to digest prior to running. I know personally, I need an hour after a snack and 2 hours after a meal. Ideally, the meal prior to exercise will contain 2 grams of carbohydrate per kilogram (2.2 pounds) of body weight. For example, if you weigh 150 pounds (roughly 70 kilos), then you will need about 140g of carbohydrates.
Meals or Snacks that I like are:
1- Peanut Butter and Banana Sandwich on Whole Wheat or Rye
2- Fruit (Banana, Orange, Apple)
3- Trail Mix
Remember, you don’t want to be too full before a workout, so eat moderately so you can work out comfortably.
Carbohydrate gels and drinks are good way of keeping your blood glucose levels sustained during a race or long run. Once you begin running for more than two hours at a clip, glycogen storage typically depletes and now your muscles begin depleting glucose in your blood.
Good ways to keep your glucose levels in check are consuming Gatorade & Gu Gel. A less tasty /more disgusting mix is mixing whole wheat flour and Gatorade powder into your water bottle. The Whole Wheat Flour is slow burning. In 32 ounces of water, quarter scoop WW flour, ½ scoop Gatorade. I know it sounds gross, but it works really well.
Recovery time. High Carbohydrates is the typical answer, but I prefer a balanced meal no longer than 45 minutes after you finish. A quick banana or yogurt right after you finish is ideal and a meal balanced in protein, carbohydrates, and vitamins/minerals. There are two goals for the post-exercise meal: 1- to replace glycogen stores and 2- to promote muscle and tissue repair. Therefore, a meal should be selected as follows:
1- Pick a Carb: Rice, Whole Wheat Pasta, Oatmeal.
2- Pick a Protein: Chicken, Steak, Eggs, Fish
3- Pick a Vegetable: Fresh Salad, Steamed Asparagus, Baby Bok Choi, Mushrooms, etc.
4- Pick a Anti-oxidant dense fruit: Blueberries, Blackberries, Raspberries, Oranges, Pomegranate, Goji Berries, etc.
This should be a good guide to helping you be ready and recover from your workouts. Train Hard!
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