Rice is an important part of many people's diets. Researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health in Massachusetts have released a report about rice. It shows that eating white rice increases the risk of Type Two diabetes. However, eating brown rice reduces the risk of the disease.
The World Health Organization says more than two hundred twenty million people worldwide have diabetes. Type Two diabetes results when the body cannot effectively use the sugar it produces.
More than thirty-nine thousand men and one hundred fifty-seven thousand women took park in the study. ugg boots clearance They were asked about their diet and day-to-day activities ugg boots clearance sale as well as any pre-existing diseases. The study found that the people who ate five or more servings of white rice per week had a seventeen percent increased risk of developing Type Two diabetes. But those who ate two or more servings of brown rice a week had an eleven percent reduced risk of getting the disease.
Brown rice is the grain in its natural form.ugg boots clearance White rice results after it has been refined. This involves removing the outer cover, including the husk, bran and germ. Only the inner white kernel is left. White rice is often enriched to replace some nutrients lost during the refining process.ugg boots sale clearance Qi Sun is the lead writer of the report. He says the outer parts of brown rice slow down the work of the body's digestive enzymes into starch.ugg boots clearance us This means that the release of sugar into the bloodstream is slower after eating brown rice compared to white rice.A diet of foods that quickly release sugar into the bloodstream has been linked with a greater risk of Type two diabetes. The exact reason for this is not known.Doctor Sun says less refined grains have more nutritional value than refined grains. He says replacing white rice with whole grains like whole wheat or barley could result in a thirty-six percent lower chance of developing Type Two diabetes. He says people should replace white rice and other refined carbohydrates with whole grains whenever possible.
Researchers, policy makers and activists are busy preparing for the International AIDS Conference. The next conference begins Sunday in Vienna, Austria.On Tuesday, the Obama administration announced its National HIV/AIDS Strategy. The plan aims to reduce new HIV infections by twenty-five percent within five years. It also aims to make sure infected patients get treatment more quickly.
HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. The government says sixty-five percent of Americans who discover they are infected get treatment within three months. The new plan calls for increasing that to eighty-five percent.
Thirty million dollars from the health care reform law is to go to support prevention activities, including expanded HIV testing.Over one million Americans are living with the virus, out of an estimated thirty-three million people worldwide.
Last week, ugg boots outletgovernment scientists in the United States announced the discovery of two antibodies that raise hopes for an AIDS vaccine.ugg boots sale clearance They say these antibodies can stop more than ninety percent of all known strains of HIV. Antibodies are proteins that the body makes to help protect itself against infection.
Researchers made the discovery at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.ugg boots clearance us The director of its Vaccine Research Center, Gary Nabel, says each antibody blocks the virus from attaching to white blood cells.GARY NABLE: "It reacts with that region ugg boots clearance sale, it inactivates the virus and the virus never has a chance to enter the cells that it would otherwise infect."
The antibodies were discovered in a man, known as Donor 45, whose body produced them naturally.Patients with HIV must take medicine all their lives to prevent AIDS. Combinations of drugs are able to suppress the deadly virus in the body -- not a cure, but the next best thing.
All were from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Half were given the gel containing tenofovir. The other half were given a gel without an active substance. They were told to use the gels twelve hours before sexual intercourse and again within twelve hours after sex.Both groups were told the gels were experimental. They were advised to use another form of HIV prevention.The study lasted thirty months. Women who used the tenofovir gel reduced their risk of HIV infection by thirty-nine percent.ugg boots clearance us And the study found that the women who used the gel more often had even better results. Women who used the gel more than eighty percent of the times when they had sex had fifty-four percent fewer HIV infections.
The scientists say the tenofovir gel was also effective against another sexually spread disease. ugg boots sale clearanceThe gel reduced the rate of infection of herpes simplex-two by fifty-one percent.Health experts say the results of the study show that tenofovir gel can empower women. ugg boots clearance sale They say it will enable them to protect themselves from HIV infection when involved with sexual partners who ugg boots outlet refuse to wear condoms.
However, researchers say they will study why the gel did not protect in all cases. Some scientists say the amount of tenofovir in the gel may be too low. Others say some women may have had sex with infected men who had very high amounts of the virus. Still others said some women may have had vaginal conditions that made them more likely to become infected. The researchers also say they will carry out more studies to confirm the results.
Matthew Sapolin is commissioner of the Mayor's Office for People with Disabilities, and he is blind. His job is to try to improve life for disabled New Yorkers."If we are going to build something -- how we build it, how we construct it, so that it would be accessible to people of all types of disabilities. Whether we talk about a ramp or whether we talk about a doorway or a handrail, things like Braille on elevators and signage and things like that."Bobbi Wailes developed polio before a vaccine became available in the nineteen fifties. She was twelve years old. Schools then were not designed for wheelchairs. She had to be tutored at home three days a week.
After high school, she got a job in one of the few workplaces with wheelchair-accessible bathrooms. She worked at a hospital for thirty years, mostly as an administrator.Bobbi Wailes also fought for passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act.
"Let me tell you something, disability doesn't care if you're young, old, rich, poor, black, white, green or purple. Disability will always be here, unfortunately. So it behooves all of us to make it a world that everybody can live in."Even with the ADA,ugg boots clearance a lot of work remains to reach the goal of equality for the disabled -- and not just in America.Marca Bristo heads a group called the United States International Council on Disabilities. She was paralyzed at the age of twenty-three. She broke her neck diving into a lake.MARCA BRISTO: ugg boots sale clearance"People with disabilities are living in the streets in some countries. It's deemed you have been possessed by the devil, or put out on the street, a shame to your family and really left to live very subhuman lives."
South African researchers at the international AIDS conference in Vienna, Austria have announced major progress in the fight against the disease. ugg boots clearance usThe researchers say their study shows a vaginal gel substance reduced the risk of HIV infection among women who used it ugg boots outlet.The gel contains tenofovir. This is a common anti-retroviral drug used to treat people with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.The study was done by South African scientists with the Center for the AIDS Program of Research in South Africa. It involved almost nine hundred sexually active women between the ages of eighteen and forty.
Challenging the Palestinian Authority is Hamas, the Islamist militant group that controls the Gaza Strip, which is home to 1.5 million Palestinians. Hamas opposes peace efforts and is considered a terrorist organization by the United States and other nations.Critics of Prime Minister Fayyad's program argue he is operating in an authoritarian, rather than a democratic, context because of the division of Gaza and the West Bank.
Professor Nathan Brown teaches political science and international affairs at George Washington University.kensington ugg boots He said, "The political split between the West Bank and Gaza is so severe, that you cannot even have any kind of democratic procedures. When you move outside the realm of administration you find real serious political diseases.kensington ugg boots The political party system is basically disintegrated. It does not really exist in any healthy form anymore.ugg bailey button Palestinian politics, if you compare it to the 1990's, is in a state of serious decay."
Brown argues that even if there is a peace agreement within the next year,ugg bailey button boots the Palestinian political system is so broken there would be no way to ratify or implement it. "Why are we pretending that there is a viable diplomatic process? You have got no parliament, you have got a PLO that is dead, and you have got a president whose term is expired. He has no authority to negotiate this agreement and certainly to implement it, even if he had the authority to negotiate it. What you have got to do is fix the Palestinian political system first."
The outlines of a Palestinian state have begun to emerge in the West Bank. Palestinian security forces have become more dependable. A transparent and disciplined government is providing a growing number of essential services, and economic growth has been strong.
This is all part of a plan by the Palestinian prime minister to prepare for the future. p90x workout"Namely to get ready for statehood, to get ready for that key deliverable of the political process, for that state of Palestine we thought was not going to be founded against a backdrop of a vacuum, but on the strength of solid,rosetta stone spanish well functioning, efficient institutions of government,"rosetta stone said Fayyad.The West Bank remains occupied by Israel with soldiers and Jewish settlements scattered throughout the territory. Many analysts remain skeptical that Israeli-Palestinian peace talks will yield an agreement leading to Israel handing over control of much of the West Bank to the Palestinian Authority.
But observers such as Howard Sumka, the former director of the USAID Mission to the West Bank and Gaza,p90x cheap say now is the time to build the foundations needed for Palestinian statehood. "They cannot start to learn their jobs or build their institutions the day after independence. They will need to be already proficient. In spite of the formidable obstacles, it is imperative that they stay on this track of state building," said Sumka.
Admitted Alistair Burt, a British Foreign Office Minister responsible for the Middle East and the Gulf, "We are obviously very distressed on this attack on British embassy staff, but it emphasizes the danger of the work that some of our diplomats do when they are caught up in situations such as this. But it is a despicable and entirely unwarranted attack."
The Foreign Office says five employees of the British embassy were traveling in the convoy that was hit by a rocket.taylor made drivers One staff member was injured along with another three civilians. No one has taken responsibility for the attack, but Burt says it is likely to be the same group that carried out a suicide attack against the British ambassador in Yemen six months ago. The Yemen wing of al-Qaida claimed responsibility for that attack."It makes us very conscious of security and issues such as that. But our work and the work of the embassy will go on,"cheap golf balls added Burt when asked if the latest attack would alter Britain's work in Yemen.
Yemen specialist Rodney Wilson of Britain's Durham University says Britain has long been a target for terror attacks in Yemen. He says Wednesday's attack is only one incident in an ongoing story. "Britain is a target partly because it is seen as a colonial power in the past and also they are portraying it that essentially it is anti-Islamic and it is an enemy of Islam,taylor made golf and obviously we have a lot of Islamic radicals in Yemen," said Wilson.
He says counter-terrorism measures in Yemen have been stepped up since the end of last year. In December al-Qaida's taylor made golfYemen wing claimed responsibility for a failed plot to blow up a U.S.-bound flight.But Wilson says ridding the country of terrorists is a major challenge.titleist golf "Essentially it is a very fragmented country," explained Wilson. "Government has problems basically controlling anything beyond the capital. Also it is a very poor country. It faces many challenges in terms of its economic development. It is just a very difficult environment in which to be waging a campaign against terrorists."Britain was not the only Western power under threat in Yemen, a gunman has shot and killed a Frenchman at the Austrian oil and gas company OMV, near Sana'a.
Just imagine. Every Sunday morning, in a large metropolis, 120 kilometers of roads are closed.Welcome to the beloved "ciclovia" as it's known in Bogota.It's a network of paths created 36 years ago out of main roads and handed over to Bogota's residents, no motor vehicles, once a week.
On holidays too, these roads belong to bikers, walkers, skaters and baby carriers... anything that moves with human energy. That includes kids learning to skate, bike and even jog. "The bike path is the largest space in the country for physical activity. It is more than 120 kilometers where people can express themselves as they wish,fashion handbags" said Ana Edurme Camacho, director of the Recreation and Sports Institute in Bogota and the person in charge of the ciclovia.?Enrique Penalosa is an international consultant on urban strategies. He's a former mayor of Bogota and is still considered one of the city's most innovative mayors. He expanded the bike path during his tenure 10 years ago. "The ciclovia is a ceremony;discount handbags it's a ritual where humans recover the city for themselves. And for a while it makes us remember that humans are more important than cars," he said.
Today, about 400 fruit stands work the roads, and 35 outdoor exercise centers have popped up along the paths.
While displays of extreme sports attract large audiences, some people take advantage of the friendly environment to promote causes.According to former mayor Penalosa, the ciclovia has benefits beyond fresh air and exercise.cheap gucci handbags It helps bridge the social and economic divide among Bogota's residents.coach handbags cheap??"In these cities of the developing world where the large majority of the population does not have a car, taking a bit of spaces from the cars is a policy of fairness, is to build equality and social justice," Penalosa said.
The ciclovia is also fun for pets. And in case your bike runs aground, there is a licensed mechanic every few kilometers.prada handbagsThe ciclovia led to other projects in the city such as the night-time ciclovia at Christmas time and hundreds of kilometers of permanent bike routes, known as "ciclorutas".Penalosa who plans to run for mayor again next year, takes credit for them. "We moved from zero to 300,000 people who go to work by bike in Bogota, that's five percent of the population," he said.The ciclovia has been replicated in other Colombian cities and has been studied and copied by cities around the world.
Millions of babies and children could soon be protected against the deadly disease pneumonia. Two leading drug companies have agreed to supply vaccines against pneumococcal disease to the world's poorest countries at a reduced price. Pfizer and GlaxoSmithKline signed the historic Advance Market Commitment agreement last week. The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations, or GAVI, helped negotiate the deal. The group says the low cost vaccines could save as many as seven million lives by the year twenty thirty.
The World Health Organization says pneumonia kills almost two million children each year.p90x cheap This is more than AIDS, malaria and measles combined. It is the leading cause of death among young children. And, more than ninety percent of those deaths happen in the developing world.
These are all reasons why GAVI chose the pneumococcal vaccine for its first Advance Market Commitment proje p90x workouthe private-public partnerships are designed to increase the availability of low cost vaccines in poor areas.
Last year, the governments of Italy, the United Kingdom, Canada, Russia and Norway joined with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. They provided one and a half billion dollars to launch the pneumococcal vaccine project. Jeffrey Rowland is with the GAVI alliance. He says the money helps to persuade drug makers to take part in the project.
JEFFREY ROWLAND: "The biggest challenge of getting life saving vaccines to poor countries is that there's no market. rosetta stone spanish People can't afford them. That's why we don't really have a malaria vaccine yet, because no one in rich countries really suffers from malaria.rosetta stone french What we did for the pneumococcal vaccine was we said we will pay one point five billion dollars if you develop the right vaccines, and the right volumes that we need and at the right price. And it was a gamble."
That gamble paid off. GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer have agreed to provide thirty million doses of the vaccine each year for ten years. The first twenty percent of the vaccines will sell for seven dollars a dose. The remaining eighty percent will cost three dollars and fifty cents per dose. That is ninety per cent less than current prices in the United States.
Mister Rowland says the agreement is a huge achievement for the developing world.
The lack of clean drinking water is a major problem worldwide. The World Health Organization says more than one billion people live in areas where renewable water resources are not available. The problem is especially serious in Asia and the Pacific. A United Nations report says water availability in that area is the second lowest in the world, after Africa.Nearly seven hundred thousand people in Asia and the Pacific lack safe drinking water. The U.N. report notes that the world's poorest countries are also the ones that use the most water for agriculture. Agriculture uses about eighty percent of the water in the Asia-Pacific area. There has also been an increase in water used for industry. China and India more than tripled their industrial water use between nineteen ninety-two and two thousand two.
The lack of clean drinking water around the world forces millions of people to drink unsafe water. bailey button ugg boots This leads to an increase in diseases like diarrhea, the second leading cause of death in children under five. Floods, droughts, pollution and climate change have created even more problems.The Millennium Development Goals for two thousand fifteen call for a fifty percent decrease in the number of people without safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
Scientists, ugg boots sale governments and aid organizations around the world are increasing their efforts to meet these goals.ugg bailey button Still the U.N. says there is much work to be done. During its yearly World Water Day observance last month it called on the international community to work together to solve the water crisis. Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are doing just that ugg bailey button boots.The American and South Korean researchers are investigating a new technology for turning sea water into drinking water. The new technology is called ion concentration polarization. The process uses electricity to help separate electrically charged salt particles from water to make it drinkable.
The researchers tested their desalination process on a computer chip the size of a postage stamp. The chip removed ninety-nine percent of the salt and other harmful substances from water samples. So far the method purifies only small amounts of water. But the researchers say it may someday be available as a personal water purification product.
And that's the VOA Special English Development Report, written by June Simms. I'm Steve Ember.
Market researchers estimate that more than one billion personal computers are in use worldwide. Availability has improved in developing countries, but still remains limited compared to industrialized nations. Experts continue to debate how best to close this digital divide.Nicholas Negroponte established the One Laptop Per Child project in two thousand five. He would like to put a low-cost laptop in the hands of every child, especially those living in extreme poverty. His nonprofit organization has shipped its specially designed laptop to developing countries around the world.
NICHOLAS NEGROPONTE: "It is already in the hands of 1.2 million children, in 31 countries, 19 languages. And one country, taylor made driversUruguay, has just completed doing every single child in the country."But the program has critics.taylor made golf clubs They say trying to supply every child with a laptop, even at the current price of one hundred sixty dollars, is costly and inefficient.Stephen Dukker also makes low-cost computers. But his can run programs and applications for several students at once. He says these "virtual desktops" lower costs,cheap golf balls reduce energy use and lessen the need for technical support. taylor made golf His company NComputing says it has set up over forty thousand networks in more than one hundred countries.
Stephen Dukker says all you need to connect to a network is a keyboard and monitor.STEPHEN DUKKER: "You think you've got your own computer all to yourself and you can't tell the difference that you're working on something other than a computer and sharing this other resource and doing it at a much lower cost than having your own PC."
An eye care organization in India is being honored for its efforts. On Tuesday, Aravind Eye Care System will receive the Conrad N. Hilton Humanitarian Prize. The award will be presented in Redwood City, California, during a conference of the Global Philanthropy Forum.Conrad Hilton, who made his wealth in the hotel industry, established the humanitarian prize in nineteen ninety-six. Each year the award is given to a charitable or nongovernmental organization working to end human suffering. The prize includes one and a half million dollars.
Aravind Eye Care System is being recognized for its work with millions of people in India.cheap gucci handbags Retired eye surgeon Govindappa Venkataswamy established the organization in nineteen seventy-six. He wanted to make high quality eye care available to all, especially India's poor. He wanted to prevent needless cases of blindness.Eight out of ten people with vision problems live in developing countries. The World Health Organization says eighty-five percent of all vision problems could be prevented or cured. polo bagsThat includes seventy-five percent of all blindness.
An estimated forty-five million people are blind, jimmy choo handbagsand India is home to ten million of them.Doctor Venkataswamy established the first Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, in Tamil Nadu state, with only eleven beds. Today Aravind Eye Care System is the largest eye care provider in the world. It operates five hospitals and more than thirty eye care centers across India.
About seventy percent of the patients receive free care. The comes from the thirty percent of patients who can pay for their services.